Push/Pull Factors and the Quest for God, Gold, and Glory

Grade Level: 8
Subject Areas: Social Studies/US History to the Reformation Era 
Time Required:  70 minutes
Prepared by: Valarie Kubos; Project Chrysalis Middle School; Houston, Texas
Keywords: Colony, Economic, Political, Push/Pull Factors, Environmental, Social, Immigration, Emigration 

Download Full Lesson Plan and Powerpoints for Lesson 1 and Lesson 2

 


Valarie Kubos 05112017Valarie Kubos was born and raised in Houston, Texas. She attended Houston ISD schools and received her bachelor’s degree in history and political science from Texas A&M University. Val teaches 7th and 8th grade social studies at Project Chrysalis Middle School, the pride of the East Side. She is the proud mom of a, soon-to-be, Doctor of Musical Arts from the University of Houston. One of her most joyous hobbies is listening to her son Cameron perform on his trumpet. Val is passionate about and highly involved in the community efforts of her students, many of whom are recent immigrants or first-born citizens. She spends a lot of “extra” time connected to former students through sports activities, community events, and college support. Val is extremely honored for this opportunity to learn even more about borderlands cultures and to bring back to her students a greater sense of pride and curiosity for their cultures. She can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Curriculum Vitae

 

Factors such as the push/pull phenomena and early colonization can be confusing for young students when applied to only early US History. The reasons for the arrival of Christopher Columbus and Cabeza de Vaca are less intimate to students and, therefore, create a need for rote memorization of early US History. Eighth grade students respond and recall much more clearly when prompted to associate early European and American relations with personal events and prior knowledge of the impact of relocating from one country, or one continent, to another.

As an introduction, Graduation Morning, Pat Mora, encourages students to think about some of the reasons why someone would cross the Rio Grande daily. Initially, it challenges students to figure out that the housekeeper is doing such a thing out of love and admiration for a family that is apparently not hers. On a larger scale, it pushes students to understand why a person might risk life, safety, and security to cross an international border to earn a living wage and embrace another’s family.

The lessons evolve to include students’ personal experience with arrival in a new land. Through their own, or a family member’s experience, they better understand both the housekeeper’s and their own reasons for risking everything to come to another country. Investigation and sharing of stories on a personal level allows students to gain a much deeper understanding of the push/pull factors that extends well beyond rote memory of ancient figures.

 

1. What economic, social/cultural, and political factors serve as motivation for exploration and colonization?

2. What issues or problems in the home land might make a person or family want to leave?

3. What benefits or rewards might make that person or family want to go to a place?

4. What are some of the “dangers” in moving to a completely new location and/or country?

5. Is the result always what the person or family expected in the new location and/or country?

6. How do stories make us who we are?

Essential Understandings

Exploration, colonization, and immigration efforts are often based on ESP [economic, social, and political] push/pull factor motivations.

 

 

 

 

 

TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills)

  • 8.2A Identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America.
  • 23A Identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration
  • 8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

  • 8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly

Common Core Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2

Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.3

Identify key steps in a text's description of a process related to history/social studies.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.6

Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

 

For this unit, students will need the following:

Copies of poem: “Graduation Morning” by Pat Mora

Copy of “The Meaning of America”

YouTube: Los Tigres del Norte y Calle 13 - America

School computer and SmartBoard

Audio speakers

Powerpoint presentations for Lesson 1 and Lesson 2

Student Handouts for Lesson 1 and Lesson 2

 

Lesson #1

Date & Lesson Title:

Push/Pull Factors

Standards: (TEKS/CCRS)

•8.2A Identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America.

•8.23A Identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration

•8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

•8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

1.A4 Evaluate the causes and effects of human migration patterns over time.

1.A3 Analyze how physical and cultural processes have shaped human communities over time.

4.A4 Understand the differences between a primary and secondary source and use each appropriately to conduct research and construct arguments.

Daily Mastery Objective(s):

 

I can explain push/pull factors that result in immigration and/or emigration.

I can explain push/pull factors that impacted Early Exploration and Colonization of North America.

I can categorize push/pull factors as economic, social and political (ESP).


3-5 Key Points:

 

Push/pull factors that encouraged immigration of our families resembles that of early explorers.

Push/pull factors are positive and negative.

Push/pull factors reflect the economic, social, political, and environmental of the old and new home.

Critical Vocabulary:

 

Colony, Economic, Political, Push/Pull Factors, Environmental, Social, Immigration, Emigration

Agenda:

Include timing

  1. PDN: Read and interpret Graduation Morning
  2. Share out
  3. Reread choice lines and brainstorm reasons (push/pull factors)
  4. Discuss, include immigration and emigration
  5. Graphic organizer: Push or Pull
  6. Student Reading
  7. Return to GO and input early explorer reasons for immigration
  8. Discuss HW
  9. Video – Los Tigres del Norte Calle 13 America
  10. Exit Ticket: Explain Push/Pull factors

Time

Type

Learning Activity

Resources / Materials

Teacher Action(s)

Student Action(s)

5 min

HK/Engage

Monitors student class prep and reading of the poem. Evaluates need for individual student support or assistance.

Students pick up daily handout and prepare for class. As instructed on the PDN, they will individually read the poem and write down what they believe it means or what is going on in the poem. Students know they must offer at least 3 insights for what the poem presents. They also know to ask for more information or assistance if they are stuck.

Student Handout,

SmartBoard presentation, hard copy of poem

5 min

HK/Engage

Walks around to listen to what students’ interpretations of the poem are offered. Redirects when necessary. Provides guided questions for struggling partners.

Students pair/share with a partner their interpretations of the poem. If they are lacking information to share, they will use the guided questions on the power point for further support. Partners will report one common interpretation for discussion.

Support questions:

Who are the two main characters in the poem?

Who is the female main character?

Who is the male main character?

Where does the female character live?

Where does the male character live?

What does the female character do every day?

What does the male do in the end of the poem?

How are the characters related?

Student Handout, Power point

10 min

CFU/Explore

Provides the specific poem line. Monitors students as they brainstorm. Takes extra time for share out and making sure that students have solid reasons.

Students reread the following line.

“Through the years she’d cross the Rio Grande to clean his mother’s home.”

Upon reading, students are asked to brainstorm reasons why the housekeeper might go through the trouble and danger of crossing the border daily.

Volunteer share out at the end of activity.

Student Handout, “Graduation Morning”, Power point

5 min

GP/INM/Explain

After checking student answers, explains that all those things are push/pull factors. Details formal definition of push/pull factors.

Students offer answers to teacher and note taking captain to make sure that they have at least 5 solid reasons for the housekeeper crossing the border daily.

Note taking section:

A push factor (emigration) is an event or situation that is so powerful that it pushes a person or a family to leave their homeland in search of a better life.

A pull factor (immigration) is an event or situation that draws a person to a certain place for the prospect of a better or more rewarding life.

As we saw in our personal examples, European countries sent explorers to find new land for many of the same reasons related to economic, social, political, and environmental troubles.

Student handout, Power point

10 min

CFU/Extend

Instructs students on completion of push/pull graphic. Monitors for understanding and encourages questions.

Students are instructed to complete the graphic organizer on their handout. See following.

Push Factor (Emigration)

Pull Factor (Immigration)

   

Push Factor (Emigration) – European Explorers

Pull Factor (Immigration) – European Explorers

   

First, place brainstorm items in first row of push/pull factors.

Next, view the ppt images to view current push/pull factors.

Analysis managers check peer work and ask for support as needed.

Student handout, Power point images from El Paso, Texas

10 min

IP/Extend

Monitors and assists student reading.

Students reading “The Meaning of America” regarding European exploration. Annotate the article according to push/pull factors.

Student handout, “Motives for Exploration”

5 min

CFU/Elaborate

Monitors and guides students’ interpretation of push/pull factors from article. Check for correctness.

Students place highlighted items in graphic from Section Three under European Explorers. Items should all go in the pull factors. Students will be challenged to think and share parallel reasons for the push factors that accompany each pull factor.

Analysis Managers check progress.

Student handout, graphic organizer from Section Three

10 min

CFS/Homework

Instructs for HW. Student given interview template to conduct push/pull factors for familial immigration.

Students will conduct an interview with a family member (see student handout). They will ask a series of questions that detail the push/pull factors that brought their family to the US. The interviewee does not have to be the immigrant, but must have a clear understanding of what brought the family to this country.

Student handout, interview template

5 min

CL/Extend

Monitors students and presents Los TIgres Calle 13 America

Students view and listen to video. Translation provided after the song. Advised that the song will not be discussed until tomorrow’s reflection on early colonization of the country.

YouTube

5 min

ASM/Evaluate

Directs students to exit question. Monitors to see if students are “getting it.”

Students complete the following exit ticket.

One push factor that made people leave their homes was ___________ and this is a(n) _____________ [ESPN] reason because ____________.

One pull factor that attracted people to move across the Atlantic was __________ and this is a(n) ______________ [ESPN] reason because ____________.

Student Handout, Exit Ticket.

APK = Access Prior Knowledge

GP = Guided Practice

CFU = Checks for Understanding

CL = Closing                     

HK = Hook

IP = Independent Practice

SQ = Scripted Questions

ACC = Accommodation

INM = Intro to New Material

CFS = Criteria for Success

ASM = Assessment

MOD = Modification

 

Lesson #2

Day & Date:

God, Gold, and Glory

Standards: (TEKS/CCRS)

•8.2A Identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America.

•8.23A Identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration

•8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

•8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

1.A4 Evaluate the causes and effects of human migration patterns over time.

1.A3 Analyze how physical and cultural processes have shaped human communities over time.

4.A4 Understand the differences between a primary and secondary source and use each appropriately to conduct research and construct arguments.

Daily Mastery Objective(s):

 

I can explain push/pull factors that result in immigration and/or emigration.

I can explain push/pull factors that impacted Early Exploration and Colonization of North America.

I can categorize push/pull factors as economic, social and political (ESP).


3-5 Key Points:

 

God, Gold, and Glory were the motivations for early European exploration.

God represents the attempt to spread Christianity.

Gold represents the gold and silver sought by the explorers.

Glory represents the control of land.

Current immigration forces resemble the 3 G’s in the desire for work, better pay, a home, and/or land.

Critical Vocabulary:

 

Colony, Economic, Political, Push/Pull Factors, Environmental, Social, Immigration, Emigration

Agenda:

Include timing

1.       PDN: Who is an “American?”

2.      Application of 3 G’s to immigration

3.      Reasons for exploration

4.      Explorer advertisement

5.      Exploration notes

6.      3 G’s of Europe

7.      Map and synthesis

8.      HW share out

9.      New HW

10.    El Inmigrante

11.     Exit evaluation

Time

Type

Learning Activity

Resources /Materials

Teacher Action(s)

Student Action(s)

5 min

HK/Engage

Teacher monitors students setting up for class. Provides printout of lyrics to song. Gives clarification as needed

Students pick up handouts and prepare for class. They know to begin immediately on please do now.

Yesterday, you watched Los Tigres del Norte y Calle 13's America. The song made a strong statement about what it means to be an "American." Look at your handout that contains the lyrics in English and Spanish. Answer the following questions. Who are "Americans?" Why did they come here? What are they doing now that they are here?

Students share out for an opportunity to turn in participation cards.

Student handout, copy of lyrics, Prezi presentation

7 min

INM/Explain

Teacher explains relationship of God, Gold, and Glory to the exploration of new land and relates how the concept was similar during early exploration and modern times.

Students take brief notes on the concept of God, Gold, and Glory. They will then view a short video containing oral histories of bracero workers who came to the United States during the 1940’s to find work to provide for their families and do things such as own homes and land.

For participation cards, students share connections between the three G’s. God might not be present, but could be connected to grace in being the “bread winner” for the family. Gold is connected through making money from a job. Glory is found in the ability to purchase a home and/or land with the money earned.

Student handout, Prezi presentation, YouTube


10 min

INM/Explain

Teacher provides information regarding European quests for God, Gold, and Glory in exploration of the “New World.”

Note taking captains assist their teams and insure that notes are complete as follows.

With the desire to colonize the Americas, Europeans explored

the land with similar goals - God, Gold, and Glory

Overview

Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.

Religious motivations can be traced all the way back to the Crusades, the series of religious wars between the 11th and 15th centuries during which European Christians sought to claim Jerusalem as an exclusively Christian space.

Europeans also searched for optimal trade routes to lucrative Asian markets and hoped to gain global recognition for their country.

All students take guided notes.

Student handout, Prezi presentation

5 min

GP/SQ/Extend

Teacher provides example of an advertisement encouraging Europeans to embark on journeys to the New World.

Students read the advertisement and answer the guided questions on paper and for participation cards, if shared.

  1. Under the given circumstances, would you take part in the journey to the New World?
  2. Would you travel from as far away as Europe?
  3. Would you make the dangerous trip from Mexico?

Student handout, Prezi presentation

15 min

GP/INM/Elaborate

Teacher presents aspects of early European exploration for Spain, France/Portugal, England, and the Netherlands

Using a guided note graphic, students will categorize motivations for exploration under the following categories.

  1. Reasons for exploration
  2. Areas of exploration
  3. Negative consequences
  4. Positive and lasting contributions

Each country presented requires information in each of the categories. Note Captains and Analysis Managers ensure complete and correct information and alert teacher to any misunderstandings.

Student handouts, exploration graphic, Prezi presentation

10 min

IP/CFU/Evaluate

Guides students to a map of early exploration routes. Instructs students in how to complete God, Gold, and Glory graphic using information acquired in the previous activity. Monitors and clarifies misunderstandings.

Students analyze the map of early exploration and the information they obtained in the previous activity. They will next synthesize the information regarding trade and travel habits, as well as needed resources, into the categories of God, Gold, and Glory. Graphic is as follows.

Analysis Managers look over work and alert teacher to any inconsistencies or misunderstandings.

Student handout, 3 G’s graphic, Prezi Presentation

5 min

CFU/Extend

Teacher provides homework copies if needed.   Monitors sharing. Clarifies and misunderstandings or Ah Ha moments in 3 G’s analysis

Share Out – students recall homework interviewees

1. Choose one item in your interview to share.

2. Is there any information in your interview that relates to God?

3. Is there any information in your interview that reflects the search for "gold?"

4. Is there an item(s) that reflect glory?

Student HW

3 min

CFS/Extend

Briefly describes homework activity and addresses questions

Student looks over and ask for any guidance needed.

Homework:

1. Analyze an article, or story about an immigrant to the United States. You may choose information from early history or the present.

2. Answer the questionnaire about your immigrant.

3. Make conclusions about their journey that reflects a desire to seek God, Gold, and/or Glory.

Student HW

5 min

CL/Evaluate

Presents “Dream to Belong” video and encourages student decompression after long and intense lesson.

Students viewing short “Dream to Belong” video and connecting back to why people come to American. The underlying question remains, “Who are Americans?”

YouTube


5 min

CL/Evaluate

Monitors exit ticket completion. Redirects and advises students as necessary.

Students complete the following exit ticket to show comprehension of the quest for the 3 G’s and the forces that drive movement into the United States.

Two European countries that had similar reasons for exploration are ________________________ and ____________________________. They explored because...

Two European countries that had different reasons for exploration are _____________________ and _________. One explored for ________________________ and the other for ___________________.

Give one example for each that might encourage a person to immigrate today.

God:

Gold:

Glory:

Student Handout

APK = Access Prior Knowledge

GP = Guided Practice

CFU = Checks for Understanding

CL = Closing                     

HK = Hook

IP = Independent Practice

SQ = Scripted Questions

ACC = Accommodation

INM = Intro to New Material

CFS = Criteria for Success

ASM = Assessment

MOD = Modification

 

See Instructional and Learning Activities for lesson extensions.

 

See Instructional and Learning Activities for lesson assessments.

While my students are fluent in English, there are several who understand thoroughly when supported by Spanish reinforcement of difficult concepts. Each class has at least one student who is my designated interpreter and who is ALWAYS allowed to either stop me or to quietly get up or turn to the student in need of reinforcement.

Students offered the option to present or to look up a poem, short story, or children’s book in Spanish that presents the concept of immigration or push/pull factors.

Some accommodations and modifications to consider are as follows:

  1. Adjust the method of presentation or content and develop supplemental material as needed.

  2. Provide sentence stems that are offered to all the class and not just the Spanish speaking students.

  3. Reinforce written concepts with visual images.

  4. Break tasks into smaller subtasks.

  5. Provide extra time and practice to ensure mastery.

  6. Offer out of class times for assistance and encouragement.

  7. Develop simple study guides to complement required materials.

  8. Create a word wall that is accompanied by an image or photograph for each new vocabulary term.

 

 

 

 

Martinez, Oscar J. “The Spanish-French-English borderlands, 1700-1763.” In Border People. Page 30. Tucson. The University of Arizona Press. 1994.

https://www.teachtci.com/ The Age of Exploration.

http://www.emigration.link/ Push/Pull Factors and Immigration

http://www.campsilos.org/excursions/grout/one/act2.htm http://www.emigration.link/ Push/Pull Factors: Why People Came to America

Download the College and Career Readiness Standards

1.A4 Evaluate the causes and effects of human migration patterns over time.

1.A3 Analyze how physical and cultural processes have shaped human communities over time.

4.A4 Understand the differences between a primary and secondary source and use each appropriately to conduct research and construct arguments

 

 

 

 

Borderzine. "Former farmworker recalls life in the U.S. Bracero program." YouTube. YouTube, 05 May 2015. Web. 26 July 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9zLchnWQcs

Calibre Cincuenta VEVO. "Calibre 50 - El Inmigrante. YouTube. YouTube, 21 Jan. 2014. Web. 26 July 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9zLchnWQcs

Los Tigres del Norte y Calle 13. “America”. YouTube video. Duration 4:59. Posted April 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7KQcOgPXo_c

“The Meaning of America.” University of Houston, Digital Resources. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3570

"Middle School Social Studies Textbook & Curriculum | Middle School History Resources." TCI. https://www.teachtci.com/social-studies/middle-school-social-studies/.

Mora, Pat. “My Own True Name: New and Selected Poems for Young Adults, 1984-1999. Houston, TX. Piñata, 2000. Print.

"Motivation for European conquest of the New World." Khan Academy. Accessed July 26, 2017. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-1/apush-old-and-new-worlds-collide/a/motivations-for-conquest-of-the-new-world.

 

 

 

 

The goal of the lessons was to present two introductory US History lessons that address essential knowledge of the development of the country through a familiar lens. Early European exploration of US territories and the characters who pursued it often cause frustration for eighth graders because they are not able to invest in obscure names and figures. By driving home the similarities between early exploration and modern immigration, the lessons take on an air of familiarity and drive home the point that the United States was created by and for people of many cultures.

Both lessons are closely tied to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills objectives, while taking a meaningful approach. They also keep focus with my school-wide writing initiative in offering students’ multiple opportunities to write about content, knowledge, and, most importantly, personal experience. Lessons take an interdisciplinary approach with the presentation of poetry and historical information, as well as pop culture and the media. The variety of information and challenges presents the opportunity for all students to fully comprehend otherwise stale topics in early history while honing skills necessary for advanced reading and writing.

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Contact Us

R. Joseph Rodriguez &
Ignacio Martinez
UTEP NEH: 2019 Summer Institute for Teachers
(915) 747-7054
borderlandsnarratives@utep.edu


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Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this program do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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